F2 British Administration From 1842 to The Early 20th Century

ID# 396

In August 1842, China was defeated【打敗】 and was forced to sign【簽】 the Treaty of Nanjing【南京條約】. By this treaty, China ceded【割讓】 Hong Kong Island to Britain.


In October 1860, China signed【簽】 the Convention of Beijing【北京條約】 because it was defeated by the British and the French in the Second Anglo-Chinese War【第二次英中戰爭】. It ceded Stonecutters Island【昂船洲】 and the southern part of Kowloon Peninsula【九龍半島】 to Britain.


In 1898, Britain and China signed the Convention Respecting an Extension of Hong Kong Territory【搌拓香港界址專約】 in Beijing. The northern part of Kowloon Peninsular(up to the Shenzhen River) and two hundred and thirty-five islands, known as the New Territories, were leased to Britain for 99 years until 30 June 1997.


The governor【港督】 was the head of the British administration【管轄】 in Hong Kong. He was appointed【任命】 by the King/Queen of England. The Executive Council【行政會議】 and the Legislative Council【立法會】 were set up to help him to make policies【政策】 and laws.


During the early years of British rule, Chinese people were discriminated【歧視】 against and were not allowed to take part in【參與】 politics【政治】 or government affairs【事務】. All Important positions【職位】 in the government were held by foreigners【外國人】.


Ng Choy【伍才】 was appointed【任命】 as the first Chinese unofficial【非官方】 Legislative Councillor【立法會議員】 in 1988. Chow Shouson【周壽臣】 was appointed as the first unofficial Chinese member of the Executive Council【行政會議】.


Hong Kong faced many social problems【社會問題】 which caused【造成】 social instability【社會不穩定】. Some serious【嚴重】 ones are piracy【海盜行為】, robberies, kidnapping【綁架】, smuggling【走私】, gambling【賭博】 and opium-smoking【吸鴉片煙】. To solve【解決】 these problems, the government introduced the following measures【措施】:

  1. imposing curfews【實行宵禁】
  2. putting navy on patrol【讓海軍巡邏】
  3. setting up a police force【建立警察部隊】

The Hong Kong government imposed a curfew【實行宵禁】 on all Chinese people in 1843. They were not allowed【允許】 to go out after 9 p.m.


Britain sent its navy【海軍】 to patrol【巡邏】 along the coastal【沿海】 areas of Hong Kong to fight piracy【海盜行為】.


In 1843, a police force【警隊】 was formed. All policemen were either Indians or British initially【最初】.


The Government Central School, which is now known as the Queens College【皇仁書院】, was set up in 1862. The first government school for girls was called the Central School for Girls【中央女子書院】.

In 1878, Governor Hennessey ordered【勒令】 that English should be taught in all government schools. Since then, English learning became very popular in Hong Kong.