F3 The First World War

ID# 4763

International relations between the European countries before the First World War


Enemy Germany【德國】
Reason Germany【德國】 threatened【威脅】 Britain’s trade and naval supremacy【貿易和海軍霸權】
Aim look for allies【盟國】


Enemy German/Prussia【普魯士】
Reason Germany【德國】 France was defeated【被打敗】 by Prussia【普魯士】 in the Franco-Prussian war【法國 - 普魯士戰爭】 so French was very angry.
Aim to take revenge【復仇】 on Germany


Enemy Germany vs Britain and France
Reason France was defeated【被打敗】 in the Franco-Prussian war【法國 - 普魯士戰爭】 and determined【決心】 to take revenge【復仇】 on Germany.

Britain disliked Germany because of Germany’s rapid industrial development【快速的工業發展】.

Aim look for allies【盟國】


Enemy France【法國】
Reason France【法國】 and Italy【意大利】 competed for colonies【殖民地 】 in North Africa.
Aim look for allies【盟國】


Enemy Austria【奧地利】Hungary【匈牙利】
  • Russia wanted to find a ice-free port and trade in Mediterranean Sea.
  • Russia encouraged the Slaves in the Balkan Peninsula【巴爾幹半島】to get independence【獨立】 from Austria-Hungary.
  • Russia was the big brother of Slaves

Austria【奧地利】Hungary【匈牙利】 (Austro-hungarian Empire)

Enemy Russia【俄羅斯】
Reason Austria was worried that Russia【俄羅斯】 would encourage【鼓勵】 the Slavs【斯拉夫人】 in Balkan Peninsula【巴爾幹半島】 to get independence【獨立】 from her.
Aim look for allies【尋找盟友】

Causes Of The First World War

Background Causes【背景原因】

  • Economic and colonial conflicts【經濟和殖民衝突】
    • imposed high tariffs【高關稅】 on foreign goods to protect【保護】 local industries
    • wanted to get more raw materials and a larger overseas market
    • compete for colonies【殖民地 】 in the same place
    • e.g. 1st and 2nd Moroccan Crisis【摩洛哥危機】
  • Extreme nationalism【極端民族主義】 demand people to be absolutely loyal to the nation and support its foreign expansion【國外擴張】
    • revengeful feelings of the French
      • wanted to defeat【擊敗】 Germany and take back Alsace and Lorraine
    • Pan-Germanism
      • Germany should expand【擴大】 in Europe
    • Pan-Slavism
      • Slav people in Europe should be united under Russian【俄國的】 control【控制】.
    • armaments race【軍備競賽】
      • Armaments race means the powers compete【競爭】 to produce large number of weapons【武器】 and superior military technology【優越的軍事技術】 in order to expand【擴大】 their territories【領土】.
      • Britain and Germany competed in building dreadnoughts【無畏艦】 in order to control the sea if a war occurred.
      • increased the fear【恐懼】 and suspicion【懷疑】 among countries.
    • alliance system【聯盟制度】
      • Triple Alliance【三國同盟】
        • formed in 1882
        • Germany【德國】, Austria-Hungary【奧地利匈牙利】 and Italy【意大利】
      • Triple Entente【三重協約】
        • formed in 1907
        • Britain【英國】, Russia【俄羅斯】 and France【法國】
      • laid down【奠定】 the foundation【基礎】 for the outbreak of WWI

Immediate Causes【直接原因】

  • Sarajevo Incident【薩拉熱窩事件】 – like a match sparks off WWI

Events leading to the WWI

Crises in North Africa

  • First Moroccan Crisis【摩洛哥危機】 (year 1905)
    • Germany was defeated by France
  • Second Moroccan Crisis (year 1911)
    • With the support of Britain, France defeated Germany again

Crises in Balkans

Background of Balkans

  • a group of small states
  • many different races【種族】 and religions【宗教】
  • ruled by Turkey【土耳其 】

One crisis and two local wars

  • Bosnian Crisis【波斯尼亞危機】(year 1908)
    • both Austria and Russia-Serbia wanted to annex【吞併】 Bosnia【波斯尼亞】 and Herzegovina【黑塞哥維那】
  • Balkan Wars【巴爾幹半島戰爭】 (years 1912 and 1913)
    • Serbia became very powerful after the two wars happened in the Balkans in 1912 and 1913
    • Austria【奧地利】 had to crush【掃平 】 Serbia in order to expand【擴大】 its power in the Balkans.
Sarajevo Incident【薩拉熱窩事件】
  • On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand【斐迪南大公】, the Austrian King, and his wife was shot dead【射殺】 by a Serb【塞族人】 during their visit of Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia.
  • Set off【掀起】 the First World War